Entertaining psychological effects

"The Romeo and Juliet Effect"

An increase in the attractiveness of two people to each other, resulting from attempts by their parents or others to separate them.

"Eyewitness Effect"

The phenomenon is that when help is needed, the more people are present, the less likely one of them will help. This was previously seen as a sign of dehumanization taking place in the urban environment. It is now known that this effect is common to all. Basically, the more people are around, the more likely they are each to believe that someone else will help - hence no one is helping.

"The Elusive Effect"

In social psychology, the phenomenon is that people who are selective in their social choices are more desirable than those who are more accessible. This is a subtle effect. Many who act in a manner of "elusiveness", as if imperceptibly, simply discourage other people from themselves, reducing their social desirability.

"The Pygmalion Effect"

(Pygmalion effect) The term E.P. is taken from a play by George Bernard Shaw. It is used synonymously with self-fulfilling prophecy. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson first used this concept in their book, which described the effects of teacher expectations on student behavior. The original study consisted of manipulating teachers 'expectations and assessing their impact on students' IQ scores. 20% of randomly selected students from 18 different grades were described by teachers as having an unusually high potential for academic achievement. Primary school students, for whom high expectations of teachers were formed, found a significant increase in overall IQ and reasoning IQ indicators in comparison with other students in their school.

"Zeigarnik effect"

(Eng. Zeigarnik effect) - mnemonic effect, consisting in the dependence of the effectiveness of memorizing material (actions) on the degree of completeness of actions. It is named after the student of K. Levin, BV Zeigarnik, who discovered it in 1927. The essence of the phenomenon is that a person better remembers an action that remains unfinished. This is due to the tension that arises at the beginning of each action, but does not receive discharge if the action has not ended. The effect of preferential retention of interrupted, unfinished activity in involuntary memory is used in pedagogy and art.

"Halo Effect"

Its essence lies in the fact that if a person in some situation makes a positive impression, then there is an unconscious "ascribing" other positive qualities to him, if they do not manifest them later. When a negative impression arises, an attempt is made to see only the bad in a person, not noticing the full palette of personal characteristics. There is a well-known myth among students: “at first the student works for the student's record book, and then she works for him. The fact is that by doing well in the semester and carefully preparing for the exams, some of the students receive only excellent grades in 1-2 semesters. Subsequently, some of them, due to different circumstances, began to study less and did not always answer all the questions during exams. But the teacher was already affected by the "halo effect" and he kept trying to "pull" the student's answer to "excellent".

"Audience effect"

(Zayonts effect, facilitation effect) - the influence of outside presence on human behavior. This effect must be taken into account when conducting, for example, psychological research: the audience effect can be considered as one of the factors that threaten internal validity.

Examples:

• A man tries to show himself in the best light in front of a woman (and vice versa)

• In the presence of strangers, a person may experience strong emotions, worry, be embarrassed, etc.

• The behavior and thoughts of a person alone with himself and in a company are often strikingly different