7 seven secret languages

The language does not always have to be understood by everyone. Since ancient times, guild and criminal communities have invented their own secret languages. The coded adverb helped to turn deals and pass secret information unnoticed.

1 hobo

The secret language of American vagrant workers emerged in the early 20th century. It flourished during the Great Depression, which forced thousands of people to leave their homes in search of a better life. The locals were not very friendly towards vagrants - this was one of the reasons for the emergence of the secret Hobo language.

If a man in the street saw a drawn rectangle with a dot inside on the house, then he could hardly guess that this symbol was left by a hobo, warning colleagues about the danger. The graphic method of communication was not chosen by chance - most hobos did not know literacy.

The hobo code could advise "to make urgent feet" (a circle with two arrows flying out of it), report the presence of work (two shovels), the proximity of a courthouse or a police station (a circle with an intricate "squiggle") and many other moments that turned out to be useful in the difficult life of the hobo. So, the figure in the form of a cylinder (headdress) and a triangle meant that rich people live in the house, and the "grave mound" and the cross became a symbol of a dishonorable person. Two diamonds warned that one should be quiet here, and a circle crossed out by two crossed lines gave hope of receiving food in the form of alms.

2 Polari

According to linguist Paul Baker, the secret language of British sex minorities of the 20th century originated on the basis of the thieves' argo common in the Elizabethan era. It was constantly replenished with slang words that were brought by numerous travelers.

In the 18th century, the vocabulary used by "the most despised social groups" was added, and in the 19th century, the secret language of itinerant buffoons, beggars and street vendors, derived from Italian, was added. In Polari, you can see the influence of Cockney (old London vernacular, which is characterized by the use of substitute rhymes), "back-slang" with its breathtaking pronunciation of words backwards, Yiddish, slang vocabulary of sailors and military pilots, as well as drug addicts. Polari became widespread in London among the chorus boys who performed in musical pieces in the western part of the city.

The Polari also communicated with male prostitutes, for whom the secret language was vital. Their type of activity was considered a crime and was punishable by death. Most Polari speakers had only a minimal vocabulary and used individual words, weaving them into familiar speech. Those who had mastered Polari to perfection could communicate in public, discuss unsuccessful outfits of people standing next to them, or talk frankly about their adventures. When a Polari broadcast appeared on the radio in the 1960s, the language lost its halo of mystery. The abolition of criminal prosecution for homosexuality has led to the fact that the need for a language "for the initiated" has disappeared altogether.

3 Lunfardo

Linguists did not come to a consensus about the origin of Lunfardo. Probably, it could be based on the dialect of Spanish convicts who arrived in Argentina and Uruguay in the 17th-18th centuries. Lunfardo's vocabulary was supplemented with northern Italian dialects, English and French vocabulary, and Romani words.

The origin of most of the lexemes remains unknown, so scientists assume that they were artificially invented by the speakers of Lunfardo. The main features of this secret language, which today is often called the language of tango, are the abundance of metaphors and inversion of syllables. So instead of "tango" (tango) appeared "gotán", and instead of "mujer" (woman) - "jermu".

Many of the words of Lunfardo have become firmly established in tango terminology. With the growing popularity of this dance around the world, Lunfardo has lost its mystery.

4 Callahuaya

This secret language is used by the Kallawaya - itinerant healers living in the Bolivian Andes. The origins of their culture date back to the Inca period, from there, probably, came the secret language, which, along with healing skills, is passed on from generation to generation. However, not all linguists agree: it is quite possible that Kalyahuaya is associated with the Amazonian dialects, the vocabulary of which healers borrowed during their travels in search of medicinal plants. Until in 1984, alternative medicine was not officially recognized in Bolivia, the Kallawayas were forced to lead a semi-legal lifestyle, fearing to be imprisoned for their activities. The secret language of Kalyahuaya is alive in the rituals and medical practice of Kallawaya today, as is the demand for the services of its speakers - virtuoso healers.

5 Parlache

The youth slang language Parlació was born on Colombian streets in the 1980s. Young drug dealers used a secret language to encrypt their illegal activities. The vocabulary of parliament included foreign borrowings, as well as well-known words that were endowed with new semantics.

So "cocina" (kitchen) turned into a "drug laboratory", and "oficina" (office) - into a "drug mafia". As often happens, argotisms began to penetrate into ordinary life, becoming a means of emotional coloring of speech, euphemisms. Already in the 90s, the vocabulary of the parliament was actively used in advertising, cinema and books telling about the fate of young people in poor neighborhoods - the main bearers of parliament.

Some of the most striking words were used by politicians in their speeches, trying to make their speech "closer to the people." In 2001, the first parliamentary dictionary was published. The once secret language is now actively studied by linguists around the world.

6 Fenya

The language of Russians has been studied quite well at the moment. It was based on numerous borrowings from different languages ​​(Greek, Latin, Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Gypsy, Yiddish, etc.), as well as skillful word formation.

The buyer, who was present at the conversation between the two sly fucks, could hardly guess what the speech was about: they say, it seems, in Russian, but not a word is clear. “Masen will sleep in kondurs and bring in half a huckster” (“I run to a tavern and bring half a liter of vodka”) or “Put stucco, vakhro and semishi into the shilk” (“Take kerchiefs, cloth and calico in debt”). Vladimir Dal pointed out that this language was artificially invented "for the cheating meetings of traders."

It is not surprising that the activities of the officers periodically aroused the discontent of the police: they tried repeatedly to deal with the officers, and at the same time with their "strange language".

From the middle of the 19th century, the number of fuzzy began to decline, and at the beginning of the 20th century, it became almost impossible to hear pretentious and mysterious speech at Russian fairs.

7 Code yes pinch

For the first time, the symbols used by British burglars were noticed in 2009. Then, in front of some houses in Surrey, ominous chalk marks appeared that looked like children's drawings. The policemen thought it strange that the owners of all the "marked" houses had one thing in common: they had been robbed.

A little later, the symbols were deciphered: in some cases, they warned about the presence of a "defenseless woman" in the mansion or designated the object as "an excellent option", in others, the degree of risk was determined or it was reported that "there was nothing to profit from in the house."

All homeowners were given instructions with the decoding of the symbols and advised, if found, to wash off the identified drawings. However, the British police are not asleep, suggesting that the disclosure of the da pinchi code will force inventive criminals to come up with a new way of transmitting "useful" information.