The romantic era of the airplane, when the huge passenger airships slowly furred the sky of Europe and made transatlantic flights, has long passed. But a hundred years ago, there were huge hopes for the conduits as the main transport of the future.
The date of birth of the airship is considered to be 1783, when the aerostat was invented - the aircraft is easier than air, for the lifting of which the gas enclosed in the shell is used. But still, a full-fledged airship occurred on September 24, 1852, when an electric motor with a propeller was able to install an electric motor with a propeller, thanks to which the person was able to control not only the height of the flight, but also its direction and speed. But the present boom of the airship started at the end of the 19th century together with the advent of reliable and powerful internal combustion engine.
Of particular interest in the airships from the moment of their appearance were shown by the military. The generals quickly understood how much a huge advantage on the battlefield would be able to ensure the presence of a flying unit with weapons on board.
The advanced powers urgently organized the development of military airships, and at the beginning of the First World War there were dozens of flying giants at their disposal. The main countries with the flying fleet were Russia, France, England and, of course, Germany, known for its "zepelins" - airships of a tight system. During the hostilities, the airships were used as bombers and intelligence officers.
After the end of the war, the accumulated experience in airship engineers were able to implement finally for peaceful purposes. It was then that the world entered into the flourishing of the airship's era: they rose in size, they became more reliable and safe, and large gondolas could be attached to their shell to their shell.
In 1919, the Airship was for the first time to cross the Atlantic Ocean, and in 1924 the German apparatus "Graf Zeppelin", which was at that time the most advanced airship in the world, began to perform transatlantic flights with passengers on board. And people flying on it could appreciate the comfort and convenience of advanced aircraft of their era. In modern airliners, the passenger barely grabs places so as not to touch the knees in the chair of the neighbor. The passenger of the Airship, which flying 90 years ago from Europe in the United States, would be surprised to such the future and calmly stretched out on his bed: after all, in the gondola, each passenger had her own room!
The most modern at that time airshed hard structures contained a common hall where ladies and gentlemen could spend time behind the conversation, a smoking room, a reader's corner, showers and toilet rooms, a location area and, of course, a restaurant room.
The team of the ship serving staff, food and water reserves were located on the Nizhny Yarusa.
Passenger airships usually accommodate from 50 to 90 passengers. And they had something to do during long flights from Europe to North and South America, which lasted about four days: on some aircraft that performed such flights was allocated a room for music evenings with a piano!
This is interesting: The time for the transatlantic airfast of the airship could not be calculated without error. Typically, the rate of airship was about 115 km / h, but the wind could intervene, which either increased the speed of the device, or reduced it. In general, each transatlantic flight was an extremely risky event: without accurate meteoprognosis, tracking cyclones and communication with the Big Earth, the airship completely fell into the power of the elements and hardly the ship could hardly take something if the aircraft would hit the storm. I wonder what this is: to be during a thunderstorm on airship, in the shell of which thousands of cubic meters of flammable gas are injected?
Of course, the flights on passenger airships could afford only secured people. Not so luxurious machines were successfully used to transport cargo.
The golden era of the airship ended rapidly. Often, in case of the appearance of a new technology, the old one at first looks much better and to a certain point allows you to extract more benefits. It happened with the airship: aircraft construction was rapidly developed in the world, but before the 1930s, the airship remained preferable in terms of cargo transfer and passenger traffic. The end of the airship has come mainly due to the development of aircraft, which soon could transfer more goods at higher speeds and were cheaper in maintenance. A number of catastrophe associated with the airships also played the last role, the most famous of which is the death of Gindourburg.
The time has shown the unprofitability of these huge ships, with which a person once conquered the sky for the first time, and now the airships remain the lot of the narrow circle of individuals and companies. But the story will forever remember how comfortable these devices for passenger traffic, even if we compare them with modern aircraft.