It is difficult to imagine a more famous slave, rebar and gladiator than Spartak. Warrior who lived in 110-71. D.N.E, left behind so much mysteries that it is impossible to find answers on them now. Gladiator. Talented commander. And at the same time - the slave, deserter, for a long time successfully fought against Rome. Who was he and where did he disappear?
Most likely, the future gladiator took place from the Thracians - the people from the Balkan Peninsula. Some time Spartak consisted of service in the Roman army, where he mastered the tactics of battle, and also received good training. At some point he was facing slavery and became a gladiator. This fact gives the foundation historians to believe that Spartak tried to desert to their homeland, but was captured.
According to another version, the future leader of slaves fought with the Romans, but was captured and taken to the service in the army. In the future, when he had the opportunity, tried to desert. I could not leave, was addressed to gladiators. Previously, he was educated, which may indicate its aristocratic origin.
Lucius Annetic Flor, ancient Roman historian, who lived about a century after Spartacus, described his life path: Thracian mercenary, Spartak became a soldier, then a deserter, then a robber, and then the gladiator. Perhaps this formula is more consistent with the truth.
School of Gladiatorators
In the Roman Empire, gladiators were not just warriors, but a special cask, which had significant rights. First, they did not live in such conditions as slaves. They received money for speeches, could eat well, treated. Secondly, they did not die as often as Hollywood films talk about it. After all, the warrior had to teach, spending considerable money.
Apparently, Spartak was an elite gladiator, so he possessed limited freedom, name, money. He became a student of the Lentula Batiat school: a little famous for this historical character. Being in nature the leader, Spartak in 73 BC. I decided to organize an uprising. And although the plot was revealed, gladiators were able to capture the weapons, destroy the guard and serving and escape to Vesuvia. There, they began to lead the usual life for runaway slaves: steal, rob, rape. Spartak troops ruined the county, and unbalaous residents of Rome were joined to them. After a short time, the number of troops of gladiators-fugitives exceeded a thousand people. At that time, it was a serious strength that could truly threaten the stability of the state. The closest associates Spartak became his "colleagues" Enonai, Guy Hannik and Cryx.
Why the gladiators rebelled?
Historians call various reasons for insurrection - social contradictions, the reluctance to remain a slave. But in the case of Spartak, probably everything was a little prose. Although gladiators were not killed on such a scale, as they show in the cinema, death still took place. And, given the desire of the Romans, everything is planned, random death is almost excluded. Spartak, along with his comrade Cryx, was "appointed" with the victim, that is, he had to die in the amphitheater. Games were scheduled for February 72 BC.
First Military Successes
In many ways, Spartak's victory has become possible due to the wrong actions of the Roman authorities. Initially, when the gladiators are located on Vesuviya, for his assimios, a detachment of 300 untrained recruits led by Pretor Claudius Glaubrom was sent. They began to precipitate the parking of the rebels, break all the ways to retreat. However, gladiators and slaves that joined them went down the mountains on the grapes, they went around the ledge of the gland and the head of the Romans.
After elevrara, the slaves were sent by publicing the closure. He probably was going to attack the rebels from two sides and divided his soldiers into 2 detachments. Spartak, using rapid attack tactics, attacked the first detachment, where there were about 3 thousand warriors. Applying strong losses, the slaves immediately retreated, but, as it turned out, it was only a false retreat. Fresh Spartak forces unexpectedly attacked the Romans pursuing them and turned them into flight. Soon, the second detachment was destroyed and the second squad. Pretor Varia could not keep the moral spirit of the remaining army: in a short time, due to mass desertion, he left only 4 thousand soldiers. Romans did not remain anything but how to strengthen the camp, which Spartak did not dare to storm.
Soon the reinforcement came to the cooking, and the slaves were again in a numerical minority. The daughtered Romans starred and came close to the parking lot of slaves, showing their strength and numbers. Such tactics had to provoke the untrained enemy warriors to desert. But Spartak, retaining the discipline, was able to escape from the "ticks" very cunningly: the former gladiator left the trumpeter in the camp, which several times an hour gave signals, creating the visibility of preparation for battle. The role of the sentries was performed by the grass stuffed. The slaves under the cover of darkness managed to elude anyone unsuspecting Romans from under the nose.
After some time, finding a hoax, the Varia began the persecution of Spartacus. Pretor managed to replenish his army by volunteers, reach a new Spartak camp. There he attacked slaves, but his army was destroyed, and he himself almost came pronounced, losing a horse in a hot battle. Thus, a significant part of southern Italy was covered by the uprising.
What was the slaves army?
As the Roman Empire consisted of a variety of nations and the Army Spartacus turned out to be extremely different combat units. There were former gladiators, ordinary slaves, fugitives, robbers and just free people, dissatisfied with life as part of the Empire. Initially, most of the troops were armed with the fact that it comes to hand: forks, knives, chains. For protection, slaves selected shields from branches. In the future, as military successes were developed, they took the real weapons from Romans and studied to use it. Of course, not the entire Army Spartak was a role model. The robbers who came to her continued their black affairs, the robbery fell across the settlement path, which caused the local population of indignation. For some desires, Spartak looked through his fingers, others were stopped, realizing that his army should not be synonymous with terror and its success depends exclusively from popular support.
After some time, the army rose to 70 thousand people: a huge army for that time. Part of the slaves intended to go to Rome and seize power. However, Spartak was not going to become a politician: he convinced his army to move on, in Lucania to replenish the troops with recruits.
Meanwhile, two consular army was allocated to suppress the rebellion: Gneja Cornelia Lentula and Lucia Gelia People. Together they formed 4 legions with a number of about 30 thousand fighters. Spartacus, who at that time was standing near the Gargana Peninsula, were going to surround and destroy.
Gelly went to Apulia, Lentul - on the Adriatic coast. Spartak went northwest, the troops were separated from him under the command of Criches with a total number of about 20-30 thousand people. The detachment settled on the slopes of Gargan to ensure the tactful advantage of the main troops.
Spartak used his favorite reception of an unexpected attack, made a quick throw to Atherna, where the troops attacked Lentula. At that time, legions were still shipped through the Apennins. Soon after the battle of Spartak "swallowed", while his strength tried to surround the remaining fighters of Lentul, but suffered and were forced to go into defense. But soon the slaves reached the slaves: the second army of the rebels suffered a defeat in a fight with the legionnaires Lucia Gelliam, and Cryx himself was killed.
Spartak turned out to be groping in vice between the two Roman armies, but Frakian showed a brilliant colonical talent and managed to defeat the two Roman army. However, in the opinion of some historians, at that time his strength had already about 100, 000 people, therefore, it was not difficult to defeat the roman army. The wonderful death of Criches, Spartak distributed weapons to the prisoners of Roman soldiers and ordered them to fight with each other, like gladiators.
After some time, the former slave moved his strength on the city of Furia, where the army continued to accumulate strength and make raids for merchants.
Last head of the uprising
In the meantime, Rome was not going to give up and handed over to the command of the Army to Proconsul, the Licinia Crassus brand, which was at the disposal of eight legions or about 50, 000 professional Roman soldiers, challenged in various parts of the Empire. Crack immediately advanced to the camp of the rebels, sent forward two legions. The soldiers were given a team to shy away from a direct battle with slaves. Nevertheless, the commanders disobeyed him and attacked Spartak's forces, after which they retreated with great losses. This defeat was undermined by the fighting spirit of the Romans, and the Krass decided to raise it not the most popular method - executed each tenth deserter. The number of victims could translate for several hundred, while the sentence was carried out by their own soldiers.
Spartak moved along with his army to the city Messina, where she was going to hire pirates to cross his troops in Sicily, which was famous for his fertile fields, which was the need for a lack of food of the army. But, for one reason or another, he could not agree with the new allies. Someone believes that pirates bribed the Romans, and someone - that they did not fulfill the promise due to the deterioration of the weather. One way or another, Spartak turned out to be locked with all his army in the Peninsula.
However, the Krass was not going to destroy the slaves in the open battle - he wanted to take them to iszor. The Romans have erected fortifications in the shortest possible time: ditch, wall. The total length of this defensive shaft could be 30-55 kilometers. Spartak took two desperate attempts to escape from the Western and it was again succeeded, but in battles he lost at least 12 thousand warriors.
The position of slaves has worsened, as another experienced army returned to Rome, who fought in the distant borders in Spain: the troops of Gnetu Pompey. Krasse, not wanting to share the winner with Pompeat, began the fierce persecution of Spartacus in hope as quickly as possible to crush it.
The former gladiator departed to the Brundisia - the port city, from which he could cross the Balkan peninsula. However, the surviving troops were exhausted (when I was trying to breakthrough, I had to throw summons with provisions) and no longer be able to take it. Feeling a desperate position, many of the rebels wanted to turn around and give a decisive battle of the Crassus, and not to continue the hasty retreat. But the leader himself was against it, as I understood the outcome of the battle. A part of the disagreement led by Gannik was separated from the main army and went to the meeting of Romans, intending to crush them in an open battle. But there were no recruits before slaves. Naspech designed to serve from the nearest provinces. Experienced Advanced Crassa Troops began to be crowded to the rebels, but the position of Spartak came to the revenue. The surviving warriors of the former gladiator moved to the Netherian Mountains and the Romans could not quickly hide them with their army.
To catch up with runaway slaves and destroy them, Crasus decided to send a part of the troops under the command of Gneja Quinte and Elia Cheekt. Spartak again - already last time - used his favorite sudden attack tactics. He broke the advanced detachment, and Quest Skron almost died in that battle. Probably, the former gladiator again wanted to move on and fight only when it is necessary.
However, the troops of slaves are tired of constant movements. Even Spartak himself agreed that it was necessary to give a decisive battle to the very Crassus. Who knows: would not happen otherwise all the world history would have happened if the army of slaves was able to crush the best Legions of Rome in that battle? But in a fierce fight, where Spartak fought shoulder to the shoulder with his people, he was killed. Slaves broken by the death of the leader began to escape from the battlefield.
According to one of the legends, before the battle of the battle, Spartak led his horse, but he killed an animal, saying that in case of victory, he would add a good horse, and when defeated, he would not need it. The rage that the gladiator fought is so impressed by the Roman historians that they rewarded to the opponent for many years. The body of the brave warrior did not find. But the fact that he died in battle does not cause any doubt.
Why did the Gladiator Spartak lost?
Among historians there is no single point of view on this. However, many experts believe that Spartak simply did not decide their plans. If he was successful in tactical endeavors, then in strategic dips. And even his campaign on Rome did not guarantee the victory: a talented commander would hardly succeed in political intrigues even in case of successful capture of power
Illustration: Depositphotos | Luislouro