To fly to destination by plane, a person is forced to use a huge amount of appliances, satellite navigation, radar from the ground ... Without the exactly specified route, the aircraft would just get off the way. But birds from year to year without any cards or pointers manage to fly to the wintering in the places that are sometimes thousands of kilometers from the departure point. How do they do it?
This question was interested in man still in ancient times. Due to the fact that people living in the northern regions simply did not know where the birds are guided and what they do there, the answers were given the most unexpected. For example, Aristotle assumed that flying into the long lands of the bird ... Change your kind and arrive already completely different. In the later century, the versions went that the birds fly away to fall into the hibernation, like some animals.
But when people found out where the flocks of birds are sent when the seasons change, it shocked them no less than if birds really changed their own kind: hardly believed that some representatives of the feathers are able to migrate at tens of thousands of kilometers!
This is interesting: For example, the polar paint flies a record distance equal to five travels from the ground to the moon. Read more in Article "Polar Colt. Recordsman on migration among birds ".
But the biggest mystery remained, exactly exactly the birds find the routes they need and how do they find out, what time do you need to fly out?
It would seem that over the past decades, science has made a huge step forward, and such a phenomenon as seasonal bird flights must be studied thoroughly. However, there are still many black spots in their migration mechanisms, which are still not entirely understood by the scientific community.
As soon as the amount of sunny hours in the days begin to decrease, hormonal processes forcing the migrating birds, forcing the feathers to lift to get a new flawless plumage, there is more, raging strength, and easily climb into the air. Observations showed that during this period, the birds more than twice increase the mass of their body.
This is interesting: According to ornithologists, such mechanisms are still working even in birds living in captivity: at the end of the summer they start there, to fly through the cage and lift. Restless behavior ends at about the same time when wild birds arrive at the scene of wintering.
Finally, climbing into the air for migration, most birds fall on the route, according to which genetically laid instincts lead them. This is confirmed by numerous studies when migration birds that have grown in captivity and not seen before this sky, during migration fly in the same direction that their wild conifers.
In addition, some types of birds, such as rice bird or bobolink, are focused on the route, feeling the magnetic field of the Earth. Probably, they do it with the help of special organs responsible for the electric designer.
This is interesting: Sensitivity to the magnetic field is not uncommon in the animal world. The greatest progress in this was reached by sharks, in which there are special organs called Lorentzini ampulus. Their sensitivity is so high that they can feel oscillations in a magnetic field caused by blood in salt water.
But not all types of feathers can reach the destination, focusing only on instincts and electrical ceiling. Some of the flight requires training from their senior comrades. The newly born chicks of some species can be lost during migration, which proves the theory of teaching the older birds of younger.
Finally, in recent years, the popularity has acquired the theory, which claims that individual representatives of birds are used to orientate polar radiances or even the positions of stars, but in order to consider these options seriously, ornithologists require additional research.
So, at the moment it is believed to be migrating in the right direction to birds help: instincts, sensitivity to the magnetic field, training. Some types for the flight are just instincts, others are completely dependent on susceptibility to the magnetic field of the Earth and training, the third uses learning and instincts.