All Western World marks the new year's offensive in early January, while Chinese residents celebrate this holiday at the end of February. Why is this happening? Perhaps the new year's offensive is somehow related to the rotation of the Earth around the Sun or other physical processes, and the people of China calculate these parameters more precisely from other countries?
In fact, the day of the New Year's occurrence can be assigned absolutely any day in the calendar. The Gregorian calendar, which is based on calculus in Western countries, was introduced in the countries of Catholic Europe on October 4, 1582 and is a more accurate copy of the Julian calendar, created on the instructions of Julia Caesar in 45 BC. It was then that the new year began to count on January 1, and when choosing this date, Caesar was guided not to the approach of winter / smell of tangerines / festive mood, but only during the day, when the elected consuls of the republic join their position. Over time, all Western peoples are used to meeting the new year on January 1, and for more than 2 millennia nothing has changed.
But if we are accustomed that the new year in Christian countries comes on January 1, this does not mean that this order should adhere to around the world. Unlike the European calendar, which is based on the change of seasons, in China now for more than three thousand years to calculate the dates, use the solar-lunar calendar, which is based on the phases of the sun and the moon. The oldest founded Ancient Chinese calendars belong to the XVI-XI century BC. e. The new year in them begins with the onset of the second after the day of the winter solstice of the New Moon.
It is interesting: There is a winter and summer solstice. On the Day of the Winter Solstice, you can watch the shortest day and the longest night, on the day of summer solstice, on the contrary, the longest light day and the shortest night.
It turns out that if the onset of the new year in the Grigorian calendar simply depends on a certain date, then in Chinese sunny-lunar from an astronomical phenomenon. And this may look more logical, but it is less accurate. Due to the fact that the lunar cycle can continue from 29, 5 to 30 days The celebration of the New Year in China every time shifts to different dates and can occur between January 21 and February 20 at the Gregorian calendar.
It is interesting: as such, there is no New Year's holiday in Chinese culture. The fact that Europeans consider the New Year, China is called the Spring Holidays.
But it is only less convenient to live on the sunny-moon calendar for residents of the Middle Kingdom (all increasing economic ties are affected between China and Western countries), however, no one wants to forget about their roots. Therefore, currently in China is practiced by the leading of the Gregorian calendar (or, as it is called in China, sunny), and traditional holidays are tracked through the sunny-moon.