The sun, in the rays of which we all love to not sleep in a warm summer day, is not only the basis of all living on our planet, but also a peculiar thermonuclear bomb of a slowdown action, which will destroy the land in the future.
It makes no sense to describe all the importance of this star for the planet: Suffice to say that without the sun there would be no life on Earth simply would not exist. Our star was formed about 4, 5 billion years ago by compressing the gravitational forces of a gas-pepped cloud of molecular hydrogen. All increasing pressure and temperature ultimately launched a star-sorted reaction in the star kernel, which continues until now.
This is interesting: The color of the Sun is white, and not at all yellow, as we see it in the sky.
Fuel for the thermonuclear reaction inside the sun core is hydrogen, which, according to approximate calculations, is enough for another 6, 5 billion years. Considering that the stars of a sun-like "live" on average about 10 billion years old, our shine still relatively young and did not exceed the middle of his life path, so for the fate of their children and even children of children of your children (and then almost to infinity ) You can not worry.
But in fact, humanity problems will begin earlier than 6, 5 billion years. Of course, it is quite difficult to imagine that living in a constant enmity and threatening to destroy each other humanity will exist at least several million years (and still do not forget the external dangers - meteorites, outbreaks of supernova), but if it happens, and people will be able to live on The planet is in a very distant future, the end of them will be painful and terrible.
When flowing into the core of the Sun, the thermonuclear reaction hydrogen turns into helium. For years for years, every second, the Sun recycles 4, 26 million tons of matter, gradually changing the composition of their kernel. As hydrogen is consumed, the core of the Sun is compressed even more and, appropriate, becomes brighter and hot. Approximate estimates, brightness and temperatures increase by 10% every billion years. The figure is not so big, but for a surprisingly balanced inhabitable zone, in which our planet is located, even a single-percent change in the parameters of the Sun can become fatal for a developed life. Computer simulation has shown that after 1 billion years, life on our planet for highly developed creatures will become impossible due to the high surface temperature and greenhouse effect caused by the evaporation of large volumes of water. On average, the surface temperature will increase by 40-50%, and people, if they continue to exist by that moment, will have to be hidden deeply under the ground or water in special bunkers.
This is interesting: At the beginning of its existence, the sun was 30-40% less bright than now.
It is likely that only deep-water marine inhabitants and bacteria-thermophiles will be comfortable to be comfortable, which can survive at extremely high temperatures. Perhaps, in the absence of competition, they will be able to develop and evolve to reasonable creatures, but all this is only fantasy, while dry scientific facts tell us that after 3, 5 billion years from today, when the sun spends 3/4 Hydrogen reserves in their core, life on Earth will be at all impossible even for the simplest life - all seas and oceans are dry, and the surface will warm up so much that it will resemble today's Venus. The planet will become completely lifeless, but a real apocalypse will occur later. Approximately 6 billion years all the decreasing and sealing kernel of the star will reach as high temperature that it is enough for the "launch" of the process of burning hydrogen not only in the kernel, but also in the external layers, which will result in an increase in the volume of the Sun - several times compared with the current one. The sun will become much brighter and hotter, the entire energy released during the merger will be directed towards the outer shell, which will cause its growth, while the kernel itself will consist of a compacted helium. Our star will turn into a red giant.
The kernel of the star will continue to be seal, and at a certain moment of its temperature will be enough to launch the reaction of the combustion of helium. For several hundred million years, the star will acquire stability and even slightly decrease in size, but it will only be calm before the storm. After 7, 7 billion years from today, helium inside the kernel will end, in the process of burning converted to carbon. The core of the Sun will again begin to decrease, and the outer shell will begin to grow repeatedly. According to modern ideas, the sun will be 256 times more than now!
It's interesting: The life cycle of the Sun will not leave any chances for life on Earth under the current development of technologies, but can give the possibility of a comfortable life on other planets of the solar system. During the burning in the sun helium in the life cycle of our star, some moment of stability will come. It was at that moment that the remote planets with extremely low surface temperatures will be able to become paradise corners for life. True, the time interval for a comfortable stay on them and the development of life will be extremely small on cosmic standards.
Among scientists have long been disputes on whether the earth will absorb the increased sun or not. The dispute, of course, has an exclusively "competitive" character - after all, almost certainly the disappeared humanity will still be anyway, which is happening with their former planet and the star. The fact is that as the rapid expansion and burning of hydrogen in the external shells of the star will quickly lose its mass due to the strongest solar wind, which will lead to a shift of the planets from today's orbits due to the weakening of gravitational effects. It is likely that the land will be far enough in order not to be an absorbed star and leave behind at least some material mark in the history of the Universe. So far, the unequivocal answer to this question does not work.
The mass of the Sun is not enough for the end of its life cycle to be completed with a grand flash of supernova. According to the exhaustion of all stocks of fuel through the outer shell in approximately 7, 8 billion years from the bloated external layers of the Sun, the planetary nebula is formed, and on the site of the Sun kernel will remain white dwarf - a compact leveling star with an earth size, characterized by extremely high density: one teaspoon Her matter will weigh a few tons. But white dwarfs are deprived of their own source of thermonuclear energy, which means that there is no reason to have changed the sun to give the remains of heat to the comic space throughout billions. But, of course, it will never reach even the small part of its today's luminosity.
And what about the earth? If our planet is destined to survive the heat and expanding the external shells of the sun, then after it turns into a white dwarf land, like the entire solar system, is waiting for a slow frost. Even if humanity is destined to live to such distant days, elections to avoid the destruction of the entire civilization, there will be a bit: either to look for a new home on another planet, or somehow move the land itself to avoid the dearer stars. But all these changes will occur in such a distant future that there is no point in thinking about them. It will be much more correct to concentrate on other problems and threats.
Illustration: Depositphotos | Algolonline