What can break out of a black hole?

A black hole is a space-time area with a huge gravitational attraction. Any body in space has a gravitational field, which at least sparks space-time. For example, to overcome the gravitational field of our Earth, the object must achieve the first and second space speed. Modern engines are completely able to give the spacecraft the necessary impulse.

But in order to leave the borders of the black hole, the object must be accelerated to a speed greater than the speed of light. Modern physics believes that nothing in the universe can move at a speed greater than the speed of light - and the quanta of the very light, of course, too. That is why we can argue that nothing, even light, can not leave the black hole.

Or still can? The amazing world of quantum mechanics claims that the black hole can emit into space. To understand how it becomes possible, it is necessary to tell about what our space is at the level of elementary particles.

The quantum field theory claims that all space-time of the universe at any point of various energy fields. If you take an empty space - a physical vacuum - measure it with the most accurate modern devices and see that in this space there is not a single photon, then we can say that the field is in the state of the lowest energy, that is, it is not able to give energy. It turns out, the field energy is zero? Not at all. Even in this case it is impossible for sure (definitely) to measure the energy of this field, otherwise it would violate the principle of uncertainty (or the principle of Heisenberg) - the basis of quantum mechanics. It turns out that even in a state with the lowest energy, we can set the value of the field energy only only by the probability distribution. This means that various fluctuations will always occur in physical vacuum.

Quantum theory explains their presence on the permanent birth and the destruction of virtual particles and antiparticles. Why virtual? Because it happens in such a short period of time (about 10 -24 sec.) That we simply cannot register these particles. Initially, the existence of virtual particles was found on paper - during the withdrawal of formulas - and for a long time was questioned as only a mathematical description of reality. However, now scientists know exactly that virtual particles exist - they react with conventional real particles, changing the characteristics of the latter, which was repeatedly confirmed by various experiments. Yes, the world in the quantum level looks at all as well as our lucky world, but is a kind of boiling broth, in which new particles are constantly born and destroyed and destroyed. Theoretically, when exposed to a vacuum by an external field, a pair of virtual particles can be turned into a pair of real, attaching energy for this.

And now we will imagine that virtual particle pairs are born at the horizon of the black hole events. Among countless, many such pairs may also occur, which under the influence of the gravitational field will go into a real state. At the same time, it will ever come such a moment that one of the particles will fall into a black hole, and the other will be able to avoid falling, after going to a successful trajectory of flight, which seems to be "offset" a particle back into space, giving it a huge acceleration.

Note that real particles were not born by themselves - they created a black hole with their energy, then radiating one of the particles into space. It can be calculated that the first particle falling for the horizon was not able to compensate for the black hole loss in the energy, which it consumed to turn the virtual particles into real, and then to give the pulse to the second particle. It turns out a black hole not only emitted a particle into space, but also lost a part of its energy because of this, which means the masses. Theoretically, over time, it should simply evaporate - after all, every instant is born countless virtual particles, and the matter near the black hole is sooner or later ends.

This radiation is the name of the famous physicist-theority of Stephen Hawking and is called "Hoking radiation". To prove or refute the theory of Stephen Hawking, you can measure the heat spectrum of radiation near the horizon of the black hole events, however, the modern technique has not yet reached due level for such complex observations. Around the existence of Radiation Hawking to this day, fierce discussions are underway.

It's interesting: Some physicists believe that it is the radiation of Hoking evaporates those microscopic black holes that could theoretically arise during experiments on a large hadron collider.

The point in disputes could put the detection of disappearing black holes - each evaporation theoretically should end with a grand explosion. However, so far no traces of such incidents are detected - most likely, the age of the universe is still too small, so that even the first black holes formed in it approached the end of their lives.

Illustration: Depositphotos | Aaronrutten