Throughout the millennium, even the assumption that in different places the time can go differently, it was not seriously considered. People were confident that the course of time is a constant. Everything has changed in 1905, when Albert Einstein presented to the world a special theory of relativity, and later - in 1915 - the general theory of relativity, turning world physics with legs on his head.
This is interesting: The initial work of Einstein wore the name "to the electrodynamics of moving bodies." She became the theory of relativity later, when the scientific world understood how precisely the work of the scientist describes the principle of relativity, which tormented scientists with ancient times: for example, standing on the deck of a fixed ship and throwing a stone towards his nose, you will not feel any difference when throwing a stone In case the ship sailed.
Without deepening in complex computing and formulas, we will recall the main postulates of Einstein theories concerning the properties of space-time (and space and time, on the theory of relativity are inseparable from each other). In this case, we are interested in two withdrawal of theory: space-time is curved under the influence of gravitational fields, and in any moving object you can observe the effect called the relativistic slowdown time. It turns out that all physical processes will go slower in moving with nonzerulic velocity than if this body restned. That is, if you, for example, fly on the plane, and your friend stayed at home, then your time will go slower. Of course, in practice, neither you nor your friend differences will feel: after all, it will be billion in a second.
But if you warm up to speed significantly more than the speed of the aircraft, then the difference in time for you and your friend will be much larger. One year on a cosmic rocket flying with a nearby rate may be equal to several hundreds of earthly years.
It is interesting: But this does not mean that if you got into such a rocket and accelerated to huge speed, then the Slo-Mo effect would have experienced. For you, time would flow, as usual. But if an observer standing on Earth could see the clock in the cockpit of a flying rocket, he would seem that time on them is slower. On the other hand, if you saw the clock of an ordinary earthly in the porthole, then you would seem that they are slower than yours. And all because if you were in the rocket, this land with all its inhabitants would have moved relative to you. But why not all the inhabitants of the Earth experience the effect of a slowdown in time, but only a cosmonaut? This can be explained by the fact that he experienced the processes of acceleration while in the rocket, which means that the reference system for the Earth and the spacecraft were unequal (the land flew evenly and straightly, and the rocket was influenced by acceleration).
But what if we are talking about more massive objects, for example, about our land? Indeed, her masses are enough to curb around themselves space-time so hard that we can see this difference using modern devices. The closer to the massive body - the stronger its gravitational influence, which means that time is slower. This statement was verified during the set of experiments, and temporary shifts are taken into account in the transmissions of information between land and communications satellites.
This is interesting: In fact, you can check it yourself at any time. One of the conclusions of the theory of relativity is that in the gravitational field a freely falling body moves uniformly and straightforwardly. Hit the football ball - first it will fly up, and then, fall down - on the ground. In fact, the trajectory of the ball is absolutely straight, and it falls on the surface due to the curvature of space-time: at some point the trajectory of the earth and the ball will cross.
It turns out that the unequivocal statement that the time in space is always slower or always goes faster - incorrect. In different parts of the cosmos it will go differently. Somewhere faster, and somewhere slower. Near, for example, black holes, it will slow down significantly, and in the intergalactic space, away from stars and planets, on the contrary, to go faster. In addition, when calculating time for any object, it is important to take into account its high-speed parameters.
It's interesting: Now we can definitely say that in the Earth's orbit time should go faster than on the surface - because we are at a greater distance from the massive object, i.e. Our planet. To confirm, we will issue absolutely synchronously running atomic clocks to the astronaut and you, overcoming them before the launch of the rocket. Where to send cosmonaut? Of course, the International Space Station on the ISS is. Imagine that I have lived a whole year in orbit and, returning home, the cosmonaut first did not pass medical checks and did not see the family, but the time served with your atomic clock. With surprise, you will find that the clock of the cosmonaut ... lags behind - his time went slower! How this is possible: after all, he was at a greater distance from a massive object than we? To find out why time on the ISS is slower than the earth and how much, read here.