Hell, Gehenna - originally (ancient Greek mythology, Old Testament) the death state of the soul, as a result of the subterranean place of punishment of sinners (the tradition of Buddhism, Christianity) and Islam. Paradise is being opposed.
Hell in Christianity
According to the Christian doctrine, after the fall of the parents in hell, the souls of all the dead, including the ancient clerks, fell into hell. The souls of the faithful Simeon the God-Receiver and the beheading of King Herod John the Baptist led a quick and general deliverance to hell. After his suffering and death on the cross, Christ, with his human soul, descended into the most remote depths of hell, destroyed hell and brought out of it the souls of all guides in the Kingdom of God (paradise), and also accepted the soul of God.
And now, the souls of the dead saints (blessed Christians) will fall into paradise. But often by their sins, living people push God away from themselves - they themselves create a living hell in their souls, and after death, souls no longer have the ability to change their state, which will last forever. The posthumous and final fate of the souls of the dead non-Christians is unknown to the living - it fully depends on the will of God, if He thinks that the deceased lived to create, and that His soul would be accepted in the words of God
The Savior emphasizes that the defining criterion for Him will be the presence (among the "lions") of deeds of mercy (to help those in need, to which He also reckons Himself), - or the absence of these deeds (in "goats 25:") (Matthew 25: 31-46) ... God will make the final decision at the Last Judgment, after which not only the souls of sinners will be tormented in hell, but also their resurrected material bodies. Christ indicated that the greatest torments in hell would overtake those who knew Him to teach, but did not fulfill them, and those who did not forgive insults against their neighbors.
The most difficult torment in hell will not be physical, but moral, the voice will be, a kind of unnatural state, when the sinful soul cannot endure the presence of God, but even without God it is impossible for her at all. In hell, both demons and angels will also be tormented, who after the Last Judgment will be even more connected.
Catholicism and rule of law assert that in order that after death the soul fell not to hell, but to paradise, you need to be baptized, adhere to the doctrine, partake of the Body and Blood of Christ, to keep the spirit alive and to purify the spirit The right to determine whether a person's soul will fall into hell or heaven in Christianity belongs to God.
Protestantism asserts that in order for the soul of a person to go to heaven and not to hell, one must be a born-again Christian. In neo-testantism (baptism, methodism, Pentecostalism, etc.), baptism does not play a major role in salvation. In classic pro-testism (lutheralism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, etc.) there is a thesis about the need for the baptism of infants in order that they fell into paradise after death.
St. John Chrysostom writes: "Because of this He (God) also made Gehenna (hell, as a dwelling place for sinners), that He is bliss." Even the most intolerable and incomparable eternal torment of sinners in hell is still better than non-existence or a complete cessation of their existence. According to some Christian apostles, hell is evil, but God cannot do evil, however, with His creation (good), He leaves the ability to make a creature, created by Him, to mind.
Evil, according to their concept, is only just, or perverted good, or the absence of good, that is, non-being, which can never be complete and final. In spite of the fact that hell is called the kingdom of the devil and his angels, the omnipresent and omnipotent God is incomprehensibly present in hell and controls it intellectually.
Ad in islam
According to the doctrine of Islam, on the Day of Judgment, all people will be resurrected, and judgment will be held over them, and people will be divided into 2 groups - the inhabitants of hell and the inhabitants of heaven. Hell in Islam is the eternal refuge of the infidels ("kafirs" - those who did not follow the divine religion) and created shirk. The Almighty does not forgive anyone only one sin - a lot of gods ("shirk" - Arabic), the worship of any one other than the Almighty One God ("Alabosch." The Almighty forgives all other sins or not by His Wisdom and Mercy. Hell in Islam is called Jahannam (Arabic).
There is a tree in hell, called "zakkum": "which goes to hell with its roots. The fruits of its branches are like the devil's heads. And from it they eat, and fill their stomachs with it ”(Koran, 37: 64-66). The inhabitants of hell will feed on this tree, drink boiling water: "And they will drink evil boiling water, they will gulp it (in sips), but they will hardly be able to swallow" (Koran, 14: 16-17), the unbelievers will be covered with clothes from the fire "(Koran, 22:19), everywhere in hell there will be fire:" Plaques of Fire over them and under them will lie "(Koran, 39:16), " In the shade of suffocating smoke, not refreshing "(Koran, 56: 43-44).
Also in the Qur'an it is described that all the inhabitants of Hell will experience guilt, grief and sorrow about the fact that they lived their lives not worshiping the Almighty. “For them there is a howl and a roar, and an eternal dwelling there, as long as the earth and sky last, if your Lord only does not want to be disposed in a different way, - after all, Your Lord, truly, the Actor of all: -107).
"After all, We, indeed, have given them the Book, which We have laid out with the Lord's knowledge of all essence, as mercy and leadership for those who have assured the Lord. Are they really waiting for something to be used up?" It will come, those who neglected it until now, will say: “The messengers of the Lord came to us with the true.
Will we have defenders now who can stand up for us? Or will we be raised (to earth), so that we did not do as we did before? " (Qur'an, 7: 52-53).
"And you will see the wicked, who, at the sight of the punishment, say:" Is there no way to return (to earthly life)? " (Koran, 42:44).
The Qur'an harshly criticizes the ridicule of pagans and atheists over the message about the Day of Judgment and Hell: bones, will we be resurrected? " (Qur'an, 56: 45-47) "What benefit did you bring in and what did you magnify?" (Koran, 7:48)
Hell in Taoism
Hell in the Chinese tradition is called "huang quan" which translates as "yellow springs", or, less often, "abode of darkness." A man, consisting of many souls, after death, part of his souls finds himself in a kind of paradise - in Heaven, and the other part of his souls, which are of a coarser nature, end up at yellow springs.
Hell in Buddhism
In Buddhism, hell is a dwelling place for beings who practice anger and hatred. There are seven hells (eight cold, eight hot), but there are also additional hells. The stay in hell is long, but not endless, after that, as the consequences of the negative karma are exhausted, the being dies and the dream is born in the higher worlds.
Hell in Mormonism
In the revelations of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the word hell is used in two meanings.
Firstly, this is how they call the spiritual dungeon - a place in the aftermath of the spiritual world, suitable for those "who died in their sins, without knowing the truth, or in sin, rejecting the Teaching of the Teachings" (138). This temporary state, being in which spirits will be given the opportunity to study the Gospel, to gape and accept the sacraments of salvation, performed for them in the temples (Doctrine and Commandments 138: 30-35).
Secondly, with the word hell they call the outer darkness - the place where Satan, his angels and sons of perdition will dwell (Doctrine and Commandments 29: 36-38, 76: 28-33).
Ad in cabbal
In Cabbala "adom" is called the consciousness of the difference between man and the Creator - the Highest power of good. This extreme degree of awareness of our evil is a measure of how bad we feel ourselves, having suddenly discovered that we are opposed to Him by properties. The feeling of shame, detachment, one's own insignificance and baseness is so terrible that there is nothing worse than this. This feeling of absolute shame is exactly the feeling of "hell", which simply incinerates.
Hell in Judaism
Before the coming of Christ, the concept of a heavenly paradise was absent among the Jews. The Hebrew word for Hell is Sheol. Although several versions of the origin of the Hebrew word shél have been proposed, it is likely derived from the Hebrew verb ּׁשאל (shál), meaning "to ask" or "to ask." In this case, "sheol" denotes a place (and not a state) that asks or demands everyone, without exception, taking into its possession the dead. It is in the earth, always referred to in connection with the dead, and simply means the common grave of humanity or the area of the earth (not the sea) where the dead are located, while a separate grave or burial place is called kéver in Hebrew. --Ge 23: 4, 6, 9, 20).
Hell in literature
In the "Divine Commedia" by Dante Alighieri, hell is represented by several circles, the lower the circle, the more serious are the sins committed by a person during his lifetime.
Before the entrance - pitiful souls who did not create either good or evil during their lifetime, including the "bad flock of angels" who were neither with the devil nor with God.
• I circle (Limb) - unbaptized infants and good-hearted non-Christians.
• II circle - fornicators (fornicators and adulterers).
• III circle - gluttons, gourmets and gourmets.
• IV circle - The buyers and the spenders.
• V circle (Stygian bolto) - Angry and lazy.
• VI circle - heretics and false teachers.
• VII circle:
o I belt - rapists over the neighbor and over his reach (tyrants and robbers).
o II poyas - rapists over oneself (samicides) and over one's own domain (players and motes).
o III poyas - rapists over divinity (blasphemers), against nature (sodomites) and art (covetousness).
• VIII circle. Deceived the disbelievers. Consists of ten moats (Maladies, or Evil Crevices).
o I rov. Matchmakers and deceivers.
o II rov. Flatterers.
o III ditch. Holy merchants, high-ranking clerics who traded in church offices.
o IV ditch. Diviners, diviners, astrologers, witch doctors.
o V rov. Mzdoimtsy, bribe-takers.
o VI rov. Hypocrites.
o VII rov. Thieves.
o VIII ditch. Crafty co-conspirators.
o IX rov. The instigators of the irritation.
o X rov. Alchemists, false witnesses, counterfeiters.
• IX circle - deceived those who trusted.
o Poyas Kaina. Traitors of kindred.
o Antenor Belt. Traitors to the Motherland and confederates.
o Poyas Tolomeya. Traitors of friends and co-workers.
o Poyas Giudecca. Traitors of the beloved ones, the majesty of God and man.
o Satan himself.
Building a model of hell, Dante follows Aristotle, who classifies the sins of incontinence to the 1st order, to the 2nd - the sins of violence, to the 3rd - the sins of deception. Dante has 2-5th circles for the unrestrained, 7th circle for abuses, 8-9th - for deceivers (8th - easy for deceivers, 9th - for traitors). In such a way, the more material the sin is, the more forgiving it is.
In the cosmological picture of Daniil Andreev, outlined in his book "The Rose of the World", under the "hell" one understands Gashsharva - a two-dimensional world where demons live. There are also some people inhabiting, wishing to become carriers of dark missions. There they do not suffer. Therefore, Andreyev's descriptions of the "worlds of retribution" are more in line with traditional Christian ideas about hell. Also in the "Rose of the World" is mentioned "lunar hell", restored by the lunar demo of Voglea.
Ad from a scientific point of view
Jack and Rexell van Imp, Michigan, USA have come to the conclusion that black holes meet all the requirements to be a location of hell. For this they were awarded the 2001 Shnobel Prize.
Where is hell?
This may seem strange to many, but the word “hell” in the Holy Scriptures does not at all mean the place where the fire is burning. In the Old Testament, the word "ad" or in Hebrew "sheol" occurs 65 times. This word means "the kingdom of the dead." It is translated into Russian by the words “ad”, “mogila”, “hell”, “coffin” and has never been associated with the presentation of fire or punishment.
In the New Testament the word "hell", in Greek "hades", occurs 11 times (see Matthew 11:23; 16:18; Luke 10:15; 16:23; Acts 2:27, 31; 1 Corinthians 15: 55; Revelation 1:18; 6: 8; 20: 13-14) and has the same meaning as "sheol" - i.e. a tomb, where the dead - as guides, so also the wicked - await in an unconscious state for resurrection.
Hell is a place where the body is subject to decay. Christ was also in "hell", that is. in the grave, but did not undergo decay, because God raised Him up. “For you will not leave my soul in hell, and you will not allow your holy one to see corruption” (Psalm 15:10).
“Then the sea gave away the dead who were in it, and death and hell gave up the dead who were in them” (Revelation 20:13). These words of Scripture confirm that hell is a place where not the living, but the dead are, and that there are not only evil, but also good.
And here is the ancient Greek word "hell", which is also translated by the word "hell" - designates the place of punishment by fire of unrepentant sinners. In the New Testament, it occurs 12 times - (see Matthew 5:22, 29-30; 10:28; 18: 9; 23:15, 33; Mark 9:43, 45-47; Luke 12: 5; James 3 : 6).
"Gehenna" is the Greek name for one of the valleys near Jerusalem, so called "the valleys of the sons of Ennome." In ancient times, the corpses of animals and convicted criminals were taken to this place. There they were burned, and therefore they were constantly supported by the fire. Jesus speaks of this place that there “their worm does not die and the fire will not go out” (Mark 9:44). What the worms did not eat was destroyed by the fire. The name of this length, where the corpses of criminals were burned, began to be used to designate the place where all the wicked will bear the last punishment and will be finally destroyed in the fire.