Interesting facts about the war of 1812

After the crushing defeat of the Russian troops in the battle of Friedland (during the Russian-Prussian-French war), on July 8, 1807, Emperor Alexander I concluded the Peace of Tilsit, shameful for the country, with Napoleon, under which he pledged to join the continental blockade of Great Britain, which contradicted the economic interests of Russia ...

An interesting fact that in 1808 a marriage proposal was made to the Russian reigning house between Napoleon and the sister of Alexander I, Grand Duchess Catherine. The offer was rejected under the pretext of Catherine's engagement to the Prince of Saxe-Coburg. In 1810, Napoleon was denied a second time, this time regarding a marriage with another Grand Duchess, 14-year-old Anna.

On June 24, 1812, Napoleon crossed the Niemen and moved towards the aggressors, since he had a formal reason: breaking the peace Treaty of Tilsit, Alexander de facto declared war on Napoleon.

During the war of 1812, a mass of Russian officers died for no reason. In the dark, soldiers from the common people were guided by the French language, and some Russian officers often used French, which was then popular among the nobility, in everyday life.

Due to the fact that Napoleon broke the estate order in the army, a large number of persons of "ignoble" origin were admitted to the officers, who had to constantly study in order to break out into the people, the level of training of French officers was noticeably higher than the Russians.

The soldier in the war was like a pack horse. Each carried a gun (4.5 kg), a cleaver (2.5 kg), as well as a full satchel and pouches, an overcoat, a flask, and a grocery ration. The total weight of ammunition and weapons reached 45 kg. At the same time, the transition of troops in combat conditions ranged from 20 to 50 km per day.

In 1812, four empires fought with Russia at once: Catholic - France and Austria and Islamic - Ottoman Turkey and Iran. The Turkish and Persian Wars began long before 1812 and lasted on their own.

At the beginning of the war, Emperor Alexander I constantly intervened in the plans of the generals with absurd proposals, but soon the harm of his stay with the army became so obvious that at the beginning of July the tsar's closest confidants (A.S. Shishkov, A.A.Arakcheev and A.D. Balashov) persuaded him to leave under the pretext of the need to be present in the capital to prepare reserves.

On August 22, the Russian army, retreating from Smolensk, settled at the village of Borodino, 125 km from Moscow, where Kutuzov decided to give a general battle. The battle of Borodino is considered one of the bloodiest in history. About 50, 000 people died in one day. And none of the armies wavered! Lacking human resources, Kutuzov withdrew the troops, deciding to surrender Moscow.

The Borodino meteorite is known for falling on the eve of the Battle of Borodino into the location of the Russian artillery battery, which occupied a position near the village of Gorki.

During the war, Napoleon tried to reconcile with Alexander I, at least 4 times, but he did not even honor his "colleague on the throne" with an answer.

The very next day after the capture of Moscow, on the night of September 14-15, the city was engulfed in fire, which by the night of September 15-16 intensified so much that Napoleon was forced to leave the Kremlin. About 25, 000 houses were burned down. In response, 400 lower-class citizens were shot by a French court-martial on suspicion of arson.

From June to August 1812, Napoleon's army, in pursuit of the retreating Russian armies, passed about 1200 kilometers from the Neman to Moscow.

In Russian archives and pre-revolutionary literature, the war of 1812 is often called "the invasion of twelve languages", since Napoleon increased his army at the expense of the troops of the captured states.

Never after the Mongol-Tatar invasion did Russia experience such a massive infusion of foreign blood as in the Patriotic War of 1812. By the beginning of 1813, the number of prisoners in Russia exceeded 200 thousand people, most of whom remained to live in Russia.

Denis Davydov was General Bagration's adjutant, but he gave up this position and joined the hussars, creating the first "flying" partisan detachments.

On September 4, 2012, the Museum of the Patriotic War of 1812 was opened in Moscow.

An interesting fact, the war of 1812 is also called the Great Patriotic War, since the French were defended from the Russian lands by the whole people.