It is believed that lightning strikes some tree species less often (or does not touch it at all), while others more often. This can be judged by the traces of lightning on the trees - these are long strips without bark. These traces are especially significant in oak. Tall trees are a target for lightning. It has been noted that a tree standing alone is more likely to be struck by lightning, but in some forest areas, lightning scars can be seen on almost every tree. Dry trees catch fire from a lightning strike.
In ancient times, people knew that of all trees, lightning strikes the oak more often. The ancient Slavs called the oak "Perun tree" (in honor of God Perun). Scientists explain it this way: the oak root system is well developed, penetrates very deep into the ground, reaches the aquifers. Therefore, oak is an excellent lightning rod. According to statistics, most often lightning strikes tall oaks and poplars that grow in open areas.
Lightning also strikes spruce and pine, less often acacia.
Hazel, maple practically does not touch.
For 100 lightning strikes, there are:
- on oak - 54
- poplar - 24
- spruce - 10
- pine - 6
- beech - 3
- linden - 2
- acacia - 1
But you should take into account the fact that it is not safe to hide from a thunderstorm under any tree! Under normal conditions, the atmosphere is always positively charged, while the earth (together with plants) is negatively charged. And depending on the structure, plants have different electrical conductivity.
The "vulnerability" of oak, coniferous and poplar is associated with their structure (different amounts of fatty oils) and deeply buried root system. This relatively reduces resistance, thereby attracting lightning - an instantaneous discharge of atmospheric electricity.
Along the path of least electrical resistance, lightning travels through the trunk of a tree. A large amount of heat is released, the water turns into steam, which splits the tree trunk or more often tears off sections of the bark from it, showing the path of lightning. In the following seasons, trees usually repair damaged tissue and can cover the wound entirely, leaving only a vertical scar. If the damage is too severe, pests and wind will eventually kill the tree. Trees are natural lightning rods and provide lightning protection for nearby buildings. Planted near the building, tall trees catch lightning, and the high biomass of the root system helps ground the lightning strike.
- Trees struck by lightning are used to make musical instruments. These musical instruments are credited with unique properties;
- Lightning strikes men 6 times more often than women.
- A sign that a person is in an electric field is hair standing on end and beginning to emit a slight crackle (in the case of dry hair).
- Often lightning strikes high objects that rise above the surrounding area, as well as elevated places, hills, stones. Once in an open area during a thunderstorm, stop somewhere in the lowlands. But avoid clay soil (it has a high electrical conductivity). If there are no depressions nearby, lie on the ground and wait out the thunderstorm - this is best. If you are in the forest during a thunderstorm, it is best to stop in a clearing between trees, no closer than 15 m from them and away from an oak tree. It is not recommended to hide near lonely trees, as a short circuit between a tree and a person is possible (a person's resistance is about 500 Ohm - less than that of a tree). The best option is to hide in the thicket of the forest, in the bushes.
If you are struck by lightning after all.
If lightning strikes you, but you are able to think, see your doctor immediately.
In severe cases (cessation of breathing and heartbeat), resuscitation is necessary. It should be provided immediately by any witness to the incident. Resuscitation started after 10 - 15 minutes, as a rule, is no longer effective. Emergency hospitalization is required in all cases.
Doctors believe that a person who survived after being struck by lightning, who did not even receive severe burns to the head and body, may subsequently experience complications in the form of deviations from the norm in cardiovascular and neuralgic activity. However, everything can be dispensed with.
- In literature and mythology:
Asclepius, Aesculapius son of Apollo - god of doctors and medical arts. He not only healed, but also revived the dead. To restore the disturbed world order, Zeus struck him with lightning.
Phaethon is the son of the sun god Helios. Once he took control of his father's solar chariot, but did not hold back the fire-breathing horses and almost destroyed the Earth in a terrible flame. The enraged Zeus pierced Phaeton with lightning, and threw his body into the river.
- In real life:
US park supervisor Roy Sullivan was struck by lightning 7 times (from 1942 to 1977) throughout his life! And not very weak: with the loss of fingers, burns to the chest, back and limbs. 2 times on his head the hair caught fire. But he did not die of a lightning strike. The poor man committed suicide from unrequited love. But it has not been proven that lightning could not be the cause of excess feelings.
GV Rikhman, a Russian academician, died from a lightning strike in 1753.