El Niño is one of the catastrophic natural phenomena accompanied by numerous human casualties and colossal material losses. Translated from Spanish, El Niño means "baby boy". This “baby” is a warm seasonal current of low salinity surface waters in the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean. It is so named because it usually takes place in late December - early January and often falls on Christmas. El Niño is a real disaster: off the coast of Ecuador and Peru, the water temperature rises sharply (by 7-12 degrees), as a result of which the fish (anchovy) either perishes or leaves the coastal waters. The absence of fish leads to high mortality of the seabirds that feed on them. This, in turn, reduces the amount of guano, poultry manure, used as fertilizer and, along with fisheries products, is one of the most significant national treasures of Peru. In addition, El Ni Nyo causes prolonged torrential rains, resulting in devastating flooding on the usually arid coastline. The intensity, scale and duration of El Niño can vary significantly. So, for example, in 1982-1983, during the period of the most intense El Niño observations for 130 years, this phenomenon began in September 1982 and continued until August 1983. At the same time, the maximum ocean surface temperature in the coastal cities of Peru from Talara to Callao exceeded the long-term average for November-July by 8-10 degrees. Floods and other natural disasters have killed over 2, 000 people, and property losses amounted to more than US $ 13 billion.