Herostratus (ancient Greek Ἡρόστρατος) is a young resident of Ephesus who set fire to the temple of Artemis in his hometown on July 21, 356 BC. e. And he did this so that, as he confessed during the torture, his name was passed down from generation to generation and remained in the memory of posterity. The punishment was execution, and as a capital punishment - the order to completely forget it.
But the ancient Greek historian Theopompus, who told about the crime of Herostratus, kept his name for us. Later, the works of Theopomp, preserved in fragments, became the basis for the work of later historians (Strabo, Aulus Helius, Valery Maxim), who also talked about the burning of the temple of Artemis and, accordingly, about the criminal himself. Thus, Herostratus achieved his goal: he acquired an immortal, albeit shameful, glory - the glory of Herostratus.
On the site of the burnt temple, the inhabitants of this city built a new Temple of Artemis of Ephesus, which later became one of the "eight wonders of the world." Later, this still did not save the temple, in the III century it was plundered by the Goths, and in the IV century it was closed by Christians due to the prohibition of pagan cults and destroyed.
The order to “forget Herostratus” caused perhaps the first known Streisand effect in history - a phenomenon that an attempt to remove certain information only leads to its wider dissemination.
The expression "Herostratus' glory" became winged, denoting a glory equal to eternal shame; the shameful fame of a person who became famous only by destroying what was created by others. The expression exists in different versions and phrases: "Herostratus' glory", "Herostratus' laurels", "to acquire Herostratus' laurels".