Probably, each of us has heard the expression "crimson ringing". And what does it mean, and how can ringing in general be "crimson"? It is interesting to note that this statement has absolutely nothing to do with either the berry or the color in general. The thing is that the Belgian city of Mechelen has long been considered the European center of bell casting. The French call him Malin. This is how the expression “crimson ringing” appeared.
In 1717, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great visited this city, and was delighted with the ringing of local bells. Until now, bell concerts are held in Malin from June to September. Every Monday evening, a fairytale ringing is heard in the city, which tourists from all over the world come to listen to.
In Russia it was said that the ringing of bells frightens the sinner and pleases the true believer. And this is not just a legend. For example, the famous Soviet physicists A. F Okhatrin and B. I. Iskakov proved that the sound of bells removes harmful isotopes from a person, rejuvenating the body. For a long time in Russia, bells with their ringing stopped epidemics. This, by the way, is also confirmed by scientists - the ringing disperses negative energy, cleanses the body and soul.
In 1591, after the city unrest accompanied by the ringing of bells, due to the death of Tsarevich Dmitry, the Uglich bell was punished by a tsar's decree. He was first thrown from the Spasskaya bell tower, then the executioners used torture - they cut off his ear, pulled out his tongue and punished him with 12 lashes. This seemed not enough, and the bell, which at that time was 300 years old, was sent into exile in Siberia.
For more than 70 years the bells of St. Daniel's Monastery have been at Harvard. In the thirties of the last century, during a powerful anti-religious campaign, they generally wanted to be sent to be melted down. This was learned by the American industrialist Charles Crane, who bought them and donated them to Harvard University. Only in 2007, the old bells were returned to their homeland. In return, Russian craftsmen made exact copies for Harvard.
For a long time, there was a “bread bell” in the Italian city of Turin. In the morning, he reminded the hostesses that it was time to knead the dough so that bread was ready for dinner. And in German Bonn, the bell gathered residents for the weekly cleaning of the streets of their hometown.
Interestingly, the ship's bell "bell" got its name from the English ship's command "ring the bell" ("ring the bell"). Russian sailors called her in "bell bey", so the bell became bell.
The city of Valdai was considered one of the centers of bell casting in Russia. There is an interesting legend about the emergence of this craft. After the annexation of Novgorod to Moscow, the Novgorod Veche bell was sent to the capital. In the Valdai region, a bell fell from a sleigh and shattered. And local craftsmen melted the debris into thousands of small bells. This, of course, is not a documentary fact, but the Valdai bells were famous all over the world.
The most famous bells even had their own names. Moreover, some of them were named respectfully - "Red", "Gospodar", "Falcon" and so on. But the bells unsuccessful, the ringing of which knocked out of the general chorus, could "reward" and an offensive name - "Ram" or "Dissolute".
At the foot of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in the Moscow Kremlin, there is a giant bell on a pedestal. This is the Tsar Bell - the largest in the world. Its height is over 6 meters and it weighs 200 tons. True, the bell never rang. For him, they did not even cast the tongue, but the one that lies inside the pedestal was taken from an unknown bell.
"Thousands" were called those bells that weighed over a thousand pounds. And this is 16 tons! The first "thousand-meter" in our country was cast in the first half of the 16th century and installed on the belfry of the Kremlin in Moscow. By the beginning of the twentieth century, there were 39 thousanders in Russia. Over the years of the existence of the USSR, only 5 of them have survived.
And what were the bells made of? Bell bronze contained an alloy of copper and tin. The amount of copper was 80% of the total mass, plus 20% tin. Small impurities of lead, zinc, sulfur were allowed. But in the alloy, there should be no more than 2%.
The University of Oxford has an electric bell that has been ringing continuously since 1840. It uses electrostatic attraction, so it consumes very little current. And it is fed by zambonium pillars sealed in a glass flask.
There is a bell even in space. It is installed on the International Space Station. They call him during the change of the crew captain.