Glass wool is a fibrous mineral heat-insulating material, a kind of mineral wool. For the production of glass fibers, the same raw materials are used as for the production of ordinary glass or waste from the glass industry.
Glass wool has a high chemical resistance, its density in a loose state does not exceed 130 kg / m³.
The main components are poured into the hopper. Then comes the stage of melting the mass. The batchers load the melting furnace in strict accordance with the recipe so that when the temperature reaches 1400 ° C, the mixture has the specified mechanical properties to obtain the finest filaments. The filaments are produced by steam blowing molten glass ejected from a centrifuge.
The fiberization process is accompanied by treatment with polymer aerosols. Aqueous solutions of a phenol-aldehyde polymer modified with urea are used as a binder. The filament impregnated with the aerosol falls on the rolls. On the conveyor, it goes through several stages of alignment. A homogeneous glass-polymer "carpet" is formed. Then comes the polymerization stage at a temperature of 250 ° C. High temperature is a catalyst for the formation of polymer bonds. Along the way, the remainder of the moisture obtained with the aerosol evaporates in the temperature chamber. After polymerization, the cotton wool becomes hard and acquires an amber-yellow hue.
The next stage is cooling, where the glass wool is cooled to ambient temperature, after which it goes to cutting. Ripers and cross-cut saws cut the endless belt into mats and rolls.
Advantages of glass wool:
- Glass wool is non-combustible and does not emit harmful substances when exposed to fire
- It conducts poorly and absorbs sound well; low hygroscopic; frost-resistant. A layer of glass wool 5 cm thick corresponds to the thermal resistance of a brick wall 1 m thick.
- Resistant to aging and highly chemical resistant
- Glass wool thermal insulation materials are lightweight, soft and flexible
- Glass wool is pressed during transportation, and then restores its original appearance
- High vapor permeability and water repellency.
The disadvantage of glass wool is the increased fragility of fibers, sharp and thin fragments of which easily penetrate into clothing (from which they are difficult to remove) and further into the skin, causing itching. Inhalation of air containing debris from glass wool fibers can cause long-term lung irritation as they leave the lungs very slowly. It is also dangerous to get glass wool fibers in the eyes.