September was the seventh month of the year for the ancient Romans, for which it got its name: "septem" in Latin means "seven". The Slavs called this month "Ruyin", since it is in September that one can often hear the roar of animals and the howl of the autumn wind. In addition, in Russia, September was sometimes also called "gloomy"; after a sunny summer, the days became shorter, and the weather became more and more cloudy.
For a long time in Russia the year began in March, but in 1342 the church council decided to start the year from another month - September. In 1505, a new confirmation came out that the church year, like the civil year, had to begin in September. And the celebration of the New Year on January 1, which we are accustomed to now, was introduced only at the end of 1699 by the decree of the young Tsar Peter the Great.
New Year was celebrated in Moscow solemnly. A prayer service "On the beginning of a new summer" was held in the Kremlin, which was necessarily attended by the tsar in festive clothes. The patriarch inquired about the health of the ruler and blessed him. After this celebrations were held throughout the city, bells were ringing in the temples. Relatives gathered that day at the house of the eldest in the family. By the way, no trees were decorated then, this tradition appeared only under Peter the Great.
On the first of September, according to the old style, our ancestors celebrated the day of St. Simeon the Stylite. He was also called Simeon the Flyer, since summer was ending and autumn was coming. Boris Godunov, having barely ascended the throne in 1598, ordered to build in Moscow the temple of Simeon the Stylite beyond the Yauza. Boris's wedding to the kingdom took place on September 1. The church was closed during the years of Soviet power, services were resumed only in 1995.
In our country, on September 1, millions of students go to school. But, the specific date for the beginning of the new academic year was approved only in 1935 by a resolution of the Council of People's Commissars. Prior to this, the date was "floating", the academic year could begin both at the end of August and at the beginning of September. And in 1984, a new holiday was established in the Soviet Union - the Day of Knowledge.
September 1 is one of the most tragic dates in human history. It was on this day in 1939 that World War II began, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. This bloodiest war in the history of mankind claimed the lives of tens of millions of people. This war ended in September. On August 2, 1945, the act of surrender of Japan was signed aboard the battleship Missouri. In Russia, in April 2020, the end date of World War II was set to September 3.
In September, our ancestors tried to guess what winter would be like? Therefore, a lot of folk signs are associated with September. For example, the abundance of spider webs in September foreshadowed a mild autumn and a cold winter. If there are a lot of acorns on the oaks, then the winter will be snowy. But the cold September heralded early spring next year.
The so-called "Indian summer" usually falls on September, when for a short time the weather again becomes warm and clear. Why is this summer called "Indian"? There is an assumption that by that time the main agricultural work was already completed, women were taken to handicrafts. But in North America this period is called "Indian summer".
It is believed that people born in September are distinguished by prudence and maturity of thinking. They do not like to waste money, they have a purposeful character. Scientists at Harvard University conducted a study, which concluded that the best grades in schools are given to children who were born in September.
On September 29, 1907, trams appeared on the streets of St. Petersburg. But, not all residents of the capital of the Russian Empire were delighted with the new type of transport. Previously, carriages on rails were moved with the help of horses, therefore, the owners of horse parks opposed trams, the appearance of which threatened them with complete ruin.
On September 30, 1630, the first death sentence was passed in America. A certain John Billington was sentenced to be hanged for premeditated murder. In France, on the contrary, many years later, a moratorium on the death penalty was introduced. This decision was made by the National Assembly on September 30, 1981. This was one of the campaign promises made by François Mitterrand, who took over as president at the beginning of the year. The moratorium was in effect for 26 years; in 2007, the ban on the death penalty was introduced into the French Constitution.
In September 1812, a terrible fire broke out in Moscow during the occupation by Napoleon's troops. The fire destroyed two thirds of the city's houses, the total damage caused to Moscow was estimated at 320 million rubles. The city has been recovering for over 20 years. To eliminate the consequences of the fire, the Russian Emperor Alexander II established a special commission.