The reality is not at all as simple as it may seem to us at times. Things that we take for granted and are completely sure of the truth may turn out to be completely opposite.
Scientists and philosophers are doing everything possible to turn our idea of what exists around us upside down, as you can see from the following examples.
1) Large freeze. The theory of the universe.
This scientific theory tells about how the universe will end its life. Although the process itself will not be like turning everything in space into blocks of ice, as you can imagine, the problem will be very serious.
The universe has a certain amount of energy, but when this energy is used up, according to the theory, the universe will gradually slow down. That is, it will slowly begin to lose heat, since heat is generated by the movement of energy particles. By slowing down the speed, everything in our universe will eventually stop.
Solipsism is a philosophical theory that claims that nothing can be proven except for the existence of someone's mind. This may seem silly at first, because who wants to deny that the world around him really exists? However, it is impossible to prove that reality exists in fact, but the existence of individual consciousness can be proved.
Think back to all the most memorable dreams you have ever had. Did what you saw in your dream seem real to you? Do you think that you are able to prove to yourself the existence of your loved ones, since you can touch them? But this is not the case.
People who are under the influence of LSD, for example, are able to say with confidence that they have seen and touched people and objects, but these were just hallucinations. In the same way, it cannot be argued that the reality in which you are now is not the same hallucination.
What can be proven in our world? We can speak with confidence about the existence of only our thoughts. I recall the plot of the film "The Matrix". Probably, it was invented by supporters of the theory of solipsism.
Idealism is a philosophical concept that all things in the world exist as an idea in our mind, more precisely, in someone’s mind. George Berkeley, the famous idealist philosopher, understood that his theories were regarded by his contemporaries as stupid and untenable.
One of his opponents closed his eyes and kicked a stone. By this he wanted to show that if the stone really existed only in his mind, he could not push it with his eyes closed. Berkeley stated to this that there is a very powerful and omnipresent God who can simultaneously perceive everything and everyone. How plausible this theory is perceived is up to you.
4) The philosophy of Plato.
Everyone knows about Plato, the famous ancient Greek philosopher, who also had his own thoughts about reality. He argued that besides the world that is familiar to each of us, there is another world - "the world of beautiful forms." All the things that we see around are just shadows, imitations of real things.
Plato believed that everything in the world was created only from substance. This means that water, gold, air, waste products - all this consists of the same substance, presented in different forms. According to the views of modern science, this theory is not far from the truth.
Time is what we take for granted. We divide it into past, present and future. Philosophers-presentists believed that the past and the future do not exist, only the present is real.
In other words, yesterday does not exist at all, and this text will be real in the future only if you start reading it again. The future does not exist, since time cannot be simultaneously behind and ahead, as the philosopher Augustine the Blessed argued.
6) The philosophical approach is eternalism.
The opposite theory to presentism. According to this philosophy, time actually has many layers and can be compared to a biscuit cake. All these layers exist simultaneously, but which layer a particular observer sees depends on where exactly he stands.
For example, dinosaurs, World War II, and Justin Bieber exist at the same time, but can be viewed from different angles. According to this theory, the future has long been determined, and the freedom to choose options is just an illusion.
7) Thought experiment "Brain in a flask".
"Brain in a flask" is a thought experiment, a problem faced by scientists and philosophers who assume (like most people) that the outside world is quite provable.
But what's the problem? Let's imagine for a while that we are just a brain in a flask, and all our senses are controlled by aliens or scientists. How do we know about this? And how can we refute the possibility of such a situation? The "Matrix" comes to mind again.
This experiment has something in common with the ideas of solipsism: we can prove the existence of only our consciousness, everything steel that we see and what happens to us is controversial.
According to this theory, there are an infinite number of parallel universes and parallel worlds that are very similar to our own world with some differences.
The multiverse theory gives rise to a number of other theories. It allows us to assume that whatever we come up with can actually exist in some other world. The fact that in our world is just an invention and fiction, somewhere in a parallel world may be a reality.
Philosophers have come to the following conclusion: all these things that are behind us simply disappear.
Phenomenal philosophers argue that everything in the world exists as long as it is perceived. In other words, your cheese sandwich only exists if you know it exists. For example, trees in a dense forest, which no one sees and about which no one knows, do not exist. There is no existence if there is no perception.